The engineers or designers customize a PCB according to the needs of the product, using various types of copper laminate.

The copper-clad laminates or CCL can be split into two types: inflexible CCL as well as flexible CCL.

Inflexible CCLs

  • According to various insulation materials and structure division: metal-core copper-clad laminates, natural resin copper clothed laminates, as well as ceramic base copper clothed laminates
  • As per the thickness of the CCLs: standard copper dressed laminates as well as slim copper-clad laminates
  • According to the reinforcement materials utilized: electronic fiberglass towel base copper attired laminates, paper base copper attired laminates, as well as composite base copper attired laminates
  • According to the insulating resin utilized for CCLs, such as epoxy resin copper-clad laminates, polyester resin copper dressed laminates, as well as cyanate material copper clad laminates.
  • Special inflexible copper attired laminates according to flame-resistant grade as well as some special homes

Versatile CCLs

  • Polyester kinds, such as flame retardant and non-flame retardant
  • Polyimide kinds, such as fire retardant and non-flame retardant
  • Slim digital fiberglass fabric copper-clad laminates

The copper-clad laminates include, however, are not restricted to the list below kinds.

  • FR-4, which is most extensively used worldwide, is additionally the most copper-clad laminates we use. The major part of the substrate is epoxy material. FR-4 has exceptional performances as well as is less costly than some special materials. Meanwhile, this material has actually been fully examined, so it can be customized to generate a vast array of advantages such as halogen-free type. The Tg variety shows this, which divides FR-4 laminates into low Tg, medium Tg, as well as high Tg.
  • CEM-3, or Compound Epoxy Material Grade-3, is a composite fiberglass product developed on the basis of FR-4, a combination of woven glass fiber as well as non-woven glass core plus resin filling, usually has a milk-like white color. The properties of CEM-3 are extremely comparable to that of FR-4, except the reduced mechanical endurance. It’s a cost-efficient substitute of FR-4 laminate, or 2-layer boards, with less use of drill bit, particularly suitable for strike process.
  • Polyimide or PI is one of the best heat-resistant organic high molecular polymers. It has excellent softness and is the primary product of versatile PCBs.
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